Any analysis of Dokuga and violence has to begin by saying that, when left to his own devices, he catches and releases insects.
This is probably my favorite scene in Dorohedoro. It doesn't need to be there. It doesn't progress the plot. It exists just to show how fundamentally kind he is: that he would go out of his way to save a moth.

Yet it also has an existential nature. Dokuga is identified with moths, so he could very well be feeling a kinship with the moth's predicament. A moth who had known only darkness and cold is drawn to the light. No matter how many times it gets hurt trying to touch it, it can't bring itself to abandon the promise of warmth, and might keep on trying to reach it until it dies.

A parallel could be drawn between that moth and Dokuga's own attraction to his Boss. As an outside observer, Dokuga had the instinctive desire to intervene and set the moth free from its self-destructive cycle, but no-one could do the same for him.
Life was cheap in the Dorohedoro world. It could be taken on a whim and there'd be very little consequences unless you had powerful friends. Even children could be tortured, mutilated, kidnapped, or sold. There was no law enforcement to be seen, if there were any laws at all, but there were plenty of killers around, and Dokuga was very good at killing people.
Spit on
What set Dokuga apart from the others is that he did not enjoy violence and, when acting on his own judgment, did his best to avoid it and never attacked unprovoked.

He was virtually the only fighter who asked questions before attacking, and first tried to reason with potential enemies. Sometimes even pleading, as he did with the healing smoke merchants.

When Risu was rummaging through the Officers' meager belongings, Dokuga first attempted to talk to him. It was only when Risu pulled out his spikes and challenged him that Dokuga drew his daggers as a last resort.

When he was surrounded by shady-looking priests in Hole, he first tried to scare them away. And when they begged him for mercy, he sheathed his weapons and simply told them to leave him alone.
But it doesn't pay to be reasonable in the Dorohedoro world. On several occasions, his niceness nearly cost him his life.
Of course, Dokuga was no stranger to death.

His job as a CrossEyes Officer had him drowning in corpses. Some of his own making, but most pouring in from the streets through the vast network of CrossEyes to fuel Kai's personal and scientific ambitions.

Dokuga accepted this as part of life, but it never made him happy. And, as the Boss' right hand man, he was always in the thick of it, privy to secrets that the other Officers didn't know.
Dokuga was there when Kai killed Risu. Even though Risu was just some random CrossEye who Dokuga didn't personally know, the incident left him deeply traumatized. Terrified even. But he masked the pain and didn't tell anyone about it for several years.

Kai later killed Natsuki: a girl that Dokuga did personally know, and even tried to save. This only sunk him deeper into a depression.

Unlike the other fighters in Dorohedoro, Dokuga's empathy extended beyond his immediate circle of friends. He felt remorse even for the death of his landlady while the rest rejoiced at such good luck.
But nothing tested his loyalty quite like the systematic murder of thousands of innocent magic users at Kai's command.

Despite the massive amount of death Dokuga had seen throughout his life, he never grew numb to it. He was fine killing those who he thought deserved it, those who would do the same to him, or given good reasons, but not like this.

It was positively absurd to place such a gentle and sensitive soul at the head of this bloodbath. The other CrossEyes were shocked at such a sudden change, yet that was his duty as the Boss' chief Officer.

He did what he was told. He threw up when no one could see him. Then he swallowed his feelings, put on the best threatening face he had, and told the others to keep killing.

The sheer scale of slaughter was surreal, filled with frenzied and crazed CrossEyes driven by abject fear.

Hiding emotions was Dokuga's specialty, but even so, he looked like a jittery mess trying very hard to hold his sanity together.
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DISCLAIMER: all story, art, characters are copyright Q Hayashida. This is a fansite. No copyright infringement is intended. Translations by Gantz Waiting Room, VIZ Media, and sometimes myself. Dorohedoro is published in Ikki Magazine.